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What Is Anthropometry Pdf



Kinathropometry involves obtaining measurements of the human body for the application of human movement. Such measurements include body proportions, composition, somatotype, maturation, motor ability, cardiorespiratory capacity, and physical performance. Therefore, kinanthropometry is highly aligned with the related disciplines of physical education, sports science, pediatrics, physical anthropology, gerontology, and ergonomics.




What Is Anthropometry Pdf


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3. The novel design of the interior of a spaceship shuttle is an example of what anthropometric application? A. Kinanthropometry B. Ergonomics C. Somatometry D. Bertillonage


Anthropometric measurements are noninvasive quantitative measurements of the body. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), anthropometry provides a valuable assessment of nutritional status in children and adults.[1] Typically they are used in the pediatric population to evaluate the general health status, nutritional adequacy, and the growth and developmental pattern of the child. Growth measurements and normal growth patterns are the gold standards by which clinicians assess the health and well-being of a child.[1] In adults, body measurements can help to assess health and dietary status and future disease risk. These measurements can also be used to determine body composition in adults to help determine underlying nutritional status and diagnose obesity.[2]


The core elements of anthropometry are height, weight, head circumference, body mass index (BMI), body circumferences to assess for adiposity (waist, hip, and limbs), and skinfold thickness. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Child Health and Disability Prevention (CHDP) Program Health Assessment Guidelines (guideline #4), accurate serial anthropometric measurements can help identify underlying medical, nutritional, or social problems in children. Abnormal anthropometric measurements, especially in the pediatric population, warrant further evaluation. Anthropometric measurements can also assess body composition in athletes; this has been shown to optimize the competitive performance of athletes and to help identify underlying medical problems, such as eating disorders. Anthropometry-driven fitness programs in athletes have been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and strength.[3] Anthropometric measurements are also used to assess nutritional status in pregnant women and to assess patients with obesity.[4]


The Child Health and Disability Prevention (CHDP) Program Health Assessment Guidelines (guideline #4) recommend anthropometric measurements in all children and adolescents at each preventive visit to ensure adequate growth patterns and to assess the risk of obesity. Accurate serial measurements over time are the most important aspect of anthropometry. Solitary deviations from a growth pattern curve can be a normal variant or due to an acute illness. However, according to the CHDP guidelines, steady change of the growth curve on serial measurements is a reliable indicator of an abnormal growth pattern and warrants further workup. For infants and toddlers less than two years of age, weight, length, and head circumference are indicated anthropometric measurements at each well-visit. For children greater than two years of age, indicated measurements include weight and length. Body Mass Index (BMI) measurement is recommended for all children two years and older to determine adequate nutritional status and risk of obesity. These measurements should be plotted on World Health Organization (WHO) charts or the CDC charts, which are gender and age-specific to compare the child to the average population.


To measure waist circumference, patients should stand with their arms crossed on the contralateral shoulders. The placement of the measuring tape should be snugly around the lateral aspect of each ilium at the mid-axillary line. It is an essential measure of anthropometry in adults and children as it directly measures central adiposity. Increasing central adiposity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to an increased risk of diabetes and heart disease.[2]


Although technology may eventually advance to replace anthropometry on some level, one study found that the anthropometric measures of waist and hip circumferences are superior to ultrasound to assess regional adiposity.[16] A study from Sweden showed the association of anthropometrics with chronic medical conditions, measuring anthropometric measurements relative to underlying conditions such as myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, cognitive impairment, and dementia.[2] It noted that participants with myocardial infarctions had significantly higher weight, BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio, indicating a higher prevalence of subcutaneous and central adiposity. A high skinfold measurement was noted to be a strong indicator and/or predisposing risk factor for congestive heart failure in the study. Patients with cognitive impairment had a lower weight and with dementia were noted to have lower weight as well as lower skinfold measurements.[2]


Anthropometric measurements are noninvasive quantitative measurements of the body. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), anthropometry provides a valuable assessment of nutritional status in children and adults. Typically they are used in the pediatric population to evaluate the general health status, nutritional adequacy, and the growth and developmental pattern of the child. Growth measurements and normal growth patterns are the gold standards by which clinicians assess the health and well-being of a child. In adults, body measurements can help to assess health and dietary status and future disease risk. These measurements can also be used to determine body composition in adults to help determine underlying nutritional status and diagnose obesity.


The core elements of anthropometry are height, weight, head circumference, body mass index (BMI), body circumferences to assess for adiposity (waist, hip, and limbs), and skinfold thickness. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Child Health and Disability Prevention (CHDP) Program Health Assessment Guidelines (guideline #4), accurate serial anthropometric measurements can help identify underlying medical, nutritional, or social problems in children. Abnormal anthropometric measurements, especially in the pediatric population, warrant further evaluation. Anthropometric measurements can also assess body composition in athletes; this has been shown to optimize the competitive performance of athletes and to help identify underlying medical problems, such as eating disorders. Anthropometry-driven fitness programs in athletes have been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and strength. Anthropometric measurements are also used to assess nutritional status in pregnant women and to assess patients with obesity.


The assessment of nutritional status by anthropometry was previously done primarily on the basis of BMI or MUAC [31, 40, 20, 41]. Some studies also used skinfold measurement like BSK, TSK and CSK [42, 43, 32, 44] for the nutritional assessment. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio was also used for nutritional assessment [45, 46]. But there is hardly any study that have used the linear measurements like Ht., circumferences like MUAC, CC, CCN, WC and HC, skinfolds like BSK, TSK, CSK, SBSK, SISK and Wt. to predict nutritional status or have been tried to group those. To our knowledge, it is hard to find comparable literatures on this issue because it is a new one.


There is a dearth of evidence on what should be the optimal criteria for discharging children from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) treatment. Programs discharging children while they are still presenting varying levels of weight-for-height (WHZ) or mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) deficits, such as those implemented under the current national protocol in Nepal, are opportunities to fill this evidence gap.


Static Anthropometry (Ergonomics): The assessment of body sizes at rest and when utilising objects such as seats, tables, beds, mobility aids, and so on is known as static anthropometry.


Functional Anthropometry: Functional anthropometry is the measurement of abilities related to the completion of tasks, such as reaching, manoeuvring and motion, and other aspects of space and equipment use.


Designs based on inaccurate physical dimensions are an important factor in the development of musculoskeletal disorders, as they encourage poor posture over a long period of time. Improper product design and environmental planning are also associated with a greater incidence of injuries even may result in a fatal hazard. For example, in New Zealand four children under 5 years old die each year from injuries related to infant furniture [13]. In addition, it is suggested that all playground equipment should be designed specifically for the physical dimensions of preschool children [14]. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that anthropometry should be taken into account when designing products, such as hand tools or furniture. In particular for children, whose bodies are growing and changing rapidly, appropriate applications of anthropometric data in product design should be undertaken to decrease the occurrence of musculoskeletal problems, such as back pain and scoliosis, due to long periods using unsuitable desks and chairs.


Since the 1940s, several developed countries have been working on the establishment of anthropometric databases of their military, workforce or citizens in general. Worldwide, there are at present more than 90 large scaled anthropometric databases, and most of them focus on Western populations. However, there are less than 10 in Asia, of which more than half are in Japan (IOSH, 1997). Asian countries account for more than 60% of the world population, but have relatively fewer anthropometric databases. Besids, differences in nutrition and life style, as well as hereditary and ethnic factors, lead to difference in body sizes and dimensions [15,16,17,18]. In Asia, even among ethnic groups which are historically closely associated, such as the Taiwanese, Japanese, Koreans and mainland Chinese, differences in body shape and bodily proportions have been found [19]. In additions, not only different ethnicity, but also nutrition, living style and environment are very likely to contribute to differences in body size and dimensions [20]. Local anthropometry database should be established as reference and basis for safe environmental, industrial designs or related research for different ethnic groups. 350c69d7ab


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